Mai Die Sportart ist in Deutschland höchst umstritten – Mixed Martial Arts wird vor allem für seine Brutalität gefürchtet. Doch wie ist es, mit. 7. Aug. Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) ist eine komplexe Vollkontaktsportart mit klaren Regeln und keine barbarische Schlägerei. FITBOOK erklärt den. Dez. Mixed Martial ArtsExtremisten bleiben draußen. Michael Behrendt im Gespräch mit Ramona Westhof. Beitrag hören Podcast abonnieren.
Mixedmartialarts VideoThe History Of Mixed Martial Arts
As of 26 May the top 15 MMA promotions out of 41 ranked in the world are: There are hundreds of MMA training facilities throughout the world.
The rankings are based on a system where a champion earns their gym 25 points, A 1 contender is 15, a 2 contender 10 and then a decrease in ranking equaling a decrease of 1 point until the ranking reaches From there, rankings are each worth 1 point.
Web data traffic ranking leader Alexa Internet lists 40 online media outlets under its "MMA news and media" website category. As of November 13, , the top 10 most popular websites covering the sport are: As a result of an increased number of competitors, organized training camps, information sharing, and modern kinesiology , the understanding of the effectiveness of various strategies has been greatly improved.
UFC commentator Joe Rogan claimed that martial arts evolved more in the ten years following than in the preceding years combined.
The early s saw a wide variety of traditional styles competing in the sport. In the early s, practitioners of grappling based styles such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu dominated competition in the United States.
Practitioners of striking based arts such as boxing , kickboxing , and karate , who were unfamiliar with submission grappling, proved to be unprepared to deal with its submission techniques.
This increase of cross-training resulted in fighters becoming increasingly multidimensional and well-rounded in their skill-sets. The new hybridization of fighting styles can be seen in the technique of "ground and pound" developed by wrestling-based UFC pioneers such as Dan Severn , Don Frye and Mark Coleman.
These wrestlers realized the need for the incorporation of strikes on the ground as well as on the feet, and incorporated ground striking into their grappling-based styles.
Mark Coleman stated at UFC 14 that his strategy was to "Ground him and pound him", which may be the first televised use of the term. Since the late s, both strikers and grapplers have been successful at MMA, though it is rare to see any fighter who is not schooled in both striking and grappling arts reach the highest levels of competition.
The greatest MMA fighter of all time is considered by experts, fighters and fans to be either heavyweight Fedor Emelianenko or middleweight Anderson Silva.
Both guys have had truly magical moments in competition against some of the best in the world. The rules for modern mixed martial arts competitions have changed significantly since the early days of vale tudo , Japanese shoot wrestling , and UFC 1 , and even more from the historic style of pankration.
As the knowledge of fighting techniques spread among fighters and spectators, it became clear that the original minimalist rule systems needed to be amended.
The new rules included the introduction of weight classes ; as knowledge about submissions spread, differences in weight had become a significant factor.
Small, open-fingered gloves were introduced to protect fists, reduce the occurrence of cuts and stoppages due to cuts and encourage fighters to use their hands for striking to allow more captivating matches.
Most professional fights have the fighters wear 4 oz gloves, whereas some jurisdictions require amateurs to wear a slightly heavier 6 oz glove for more protection for the hands and wrists.
Time limits were established to avoid long fights with little action where competitors conserved their strength.
Matches without time limits also complicated the airing of live events. The time limits in most professional fights are three 5 minute rounds, and championship fights are normally five 5 minute rounds.
Similar motivations produced the "stand up" rule, where the referee can stand fighters up if it is perceived that both are resting on the ground or not advancing toward a dominant position.
In Japan and most of Europe, there is no regulating authority over competitions, so these organizations have greater freedom in rule development and event structure.
Previously, Japan-based organization Pride Fighting Championships held an opening minute round followed by two five-minute rounds. Stomps, soccer kicks and knees to the head of a grounded opponent are legal, but elbow strikes to the head are not.
More recently, Singapore-based organization ONE Championship allows soccer kicks and knees to the head of a grounded opponent as well as elbow strikes to the head, but does not allow head stomps.
As MMA rules allow submissions and ground and pound , the fight is stopped to prevent further injury to the fighter. This can occur when a fighter is choked unconscious, or when a bone has been broken in a submission hold a broken arm due to a kimura, etc.
The ring doctor will inspect the fighter and stop the match if the fighter is deemed unable to continue safely, rendering the opponent the winner.
However, if the match is stopped as a result of an injury from illegal actions by the opponent, either a disqualification or no contest will be issued instead.
This is normally done when a fighter is being beaten to the point where it is dangerous and unnecessary to continue. In some cases, the fighter may be injured.
Usually occurs between rounds. The judging criteria are organization-specific. Three warnings will result in a disqualification.
Moreover, if a fighter is unable to continue due to a deliberate illegal technique from his opponent, the opponent will be disqualified.
A result can also be overturned to a no contest if the fighter that was originally victorious fails a post fight drug test for banned substances.
In a three-round fight, two rounds must be completed for a technical decision to be awarded and in a five-round fight, three rounds must be completed.
MMA fighters are ranked according to their performance and outcome of their fights and level of competition they faced. The most popular and used, ranking portals are:.
Mixed martial arts promotions typically require that male fighters wear shorts in addition to being barechested , thus precluding the use of gi or fighting kimono to inhibit or assist submission holds.
Male fighters are required by most athletic commissions to wear groin protectors underneath their trunks. Both male and female fighters are required to wear a mouthguard.
The need for flexibility in the legs combined with durability prompted the creation of various fighting shorts brands, which then spawned a range of mixed martial arts clothing and casual wear available to the public.
The fenced area can be round or have at least six sides. Popular disciplines of each type include: Most styles have been adapted from their traditional forms, such as boxing stances, which lack effective counters to leg kicks, the Muay Thai stance, which is poor for defending against takedowns due to its static nature, and Judo or Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu techniques, which must be adapted for No Gi competition.
It is common for a fighter to train with multiple coaches of different styles or an organized fight team to improve various aspects of their game at once.
Some schools advertise their styles as simply "mixed martial arts", which has become a style in itself, but the training will still often be split into different sections.
While mixed martial arts was initially practiced almost exclusively by competitive fighters, this is no longer the case. As the sport has become more mainstream and more widely taught, it has become accessible to wider range of practitioners of all ages.
Proponents of this sort of training argue that it is safe for anyone, of any age, with varying levels of competitiveness and fitness. Boxing is a combat form that is widely used in MMA and is one of the primary striking bases for many fighters.
Muay Thai or Thai boxing and kickboxing , along with boxing, are recognised as a foundation for striking in mixed martial arts, and are both widely practiced and taught.
Although both may seem identical, each has different techniques. Muay Thai originated in Thailand , and is known as the "art of eight limbs", which refers to the use of the legs, knees, elbows and fists.
Techniques cover the long, middle and short range with everything from kicks to clinch holds and throws. The modern style originated in Japan and is developed from Karate and Muay Thai.
Different governing bodies apply different rules, such as allowing the use of elbows, knees, clinching or throws, etc. Brazilian jiu-jitsu BJJ came to international prominence in the martial arts community in the early s, when BJJ expert Royce Gracie won the first , second and fourth Ultimate Fighting Championships, which at the time were single-elimination martial arts tournaments.
Royce often fought against much larger opponents who practiced other styles, including boxing , wrestling , shoot-fighting , karate and taekwondo.
It has since become a staple art and key component for many MMA fighters. BJJ and jujutsu are largely credited for bringing widespread attention to the importance of ground fighting.
BJJ is primarily a ground-based fighting style that emphasizes joint locks and chokeholds , whereas jujutsu is a method of close combat that utilizes different forms of grappling techniques such as throws , holds and joint locks.
As jujutsu may also involve the use of a short weapon, it cannot be used to its full potential in mixed martial arts. Wrestling including freestyle , Greco-Roman , and American folkstyle gained tremendous respect due to its effectiveness in mixed martial arts competitions.
It is widely studied by mixed martial artists and credited for conferring an emphasis on conditioning for explosive movement and stamina, both of which are critical in competitive mixed martial arts.
It is known for excellent takedowns, particularly against the legs. The term no holds barred was used originally to describe the wrestling method prevalent in catch wrestling tournaments during the late 19th century wherein no wrestling holds were banned from the competition, regardless of how dangerous they might be.
The term was applied to mixed martial arts matches, especially at the advent of the Ultimate Fighting Championship. Karate , especially Kyokushin and other full contact styles, has proven to be effective in the sport as it is one of the core foundations of kickboxing, and specializes in striking techniques.
Several accomplished MMA fighters have an extensive background in taekwondo. In his instructional book, Anderson Silva admitted the influence of taekwondo in the formation of his unique style.
In each of my fights, I tried to utilize techniques from all the various styles I had studied. I threw taekwondo kicks. I threw Muay Thai knees and elbows, and I used my knowledge of Brazilian jiu-jitsu on the ground.
Capoeira has been incorporated into MMA in more recent years and is often used as an addition to Brazilian jiu-jitsu; both originate from Brazil.
Several fighters use this martial art when fighting, although not fully, as music and dancing are major components of the discipline. It is known for its quick and complex manoeuvres, which use power, speed, and leverage across a wide variety of kicks, spins and techniques.
Sambo is a Russian martial art, combat sport and self-defense system. Sambo focuses on throwing, takedowns, grappling, and includes submissions from Judo and Catch Wrestling.
Sambo also has a modality known as Combat Sambo , which adds punches, kicks, elbows and knees, making it a proto-MMA hybrid fighting style.
Sambo is popular in Russia and eastern Europe, where it is taught as a complement to Judo and Wrestling training, Sambo also provides a good base for MMA with all-around skills for combining grappling and striking.
Some notable Sambo fighters that transitioned into MMA include: They can be highly effective in competition due to their mixture of striking and takedowns, achieved through a condensation of traditional Chinese martial arts techniques.
The techniques utilized in mixed martial arts competition generally fall into two categories: Sprawl-and-Brawl is a stand-up fighting tactic that consists of effective stand-up striking, while avoiding ground fighting , typically by using sprawls to defend against takedowns.
This is a form which is heavily practiced in the amateur leagues. These fighters will often study submission wrestling to avoid being forced into submission should they find themselves on the ground.
This style can be deceptively different from traditional kickboxing styles, since sprawl-and-brawlers must adapt their techniques to incorporate takedown and ground fighting defense.
Ground-and-pound is a strategy consisting of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw, obtaining a top, or dominant grappling position , and then striking the opponent, primarily with fists, hammerfists , and elbows.
Ground-and-pound is also used as a precursor to attempting submission holds. The style is used by fighters well-versed in submission defense and skilled at takedowns.
They take the fight to the ground, maintain a grappling position, and strike until their opponent submits or is knocked out.
Although not a traditional style of striking, the effectiveness and reliability of ground-and-pound has made it a popular tactic. While most fighters use ground-and-pound statically, by way of holding their opponents down and mauling them with short strikes from the top position, a few fighters manage to utilize it dynamically by striking their opponents while changing positions, thus not allowing their opponents to settle once they take them down.
Cain Velasquez is one of the most devastating ground strikers in MMA and is known for continuing to strike his opponents on the ground while transitioning between positions.
He was striking his opponents on the ground while passing guard , or while his opponents were attempting to recover guard.
In the year , MMA play-by-play commentator Stephen Quadros coined the popular phrase lay and pray. This refers to a situation where a wrestler or grappler keeps another fighter pinned or controlled on the mat to avoid a stand up, yet exhibits little urgency to finish the grounded opponent with a knockout or a submission for the majority or entirety of the fight.
This style is considered by many fans as the most boring style of fighting and is highly criticized for intentionally creating non-action, yet it is effective.
Submission-Seeking is a reference to the strategy of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw and then applying a submission hold , forcing the opponent to submit.
While grapplers will often work to attain dominant position, some may be more comfortable fighting from other positions.
If a grappler finds themselves unable to force a takedown, they may resort to pulling guard , whereby they physically pull their opponent into a dominant position on the ground.
Submissions are an essential part of many disciplines, most notably Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu , catch wrestling , judo , Sambo , and shootwrestling.
Modern proponents of the submission-seeking style, such as Demian Maia and Ronaldo Souza , tend to come from a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu background.
Especially used by fighters with strong wrestling background when facing a highly skilled grappler, or by wrestlers who prefer stand-up fights.
Usually fighters who adopt this strategy use takedowns only for scoring , allowing the adversary to stand up and continue the fight.
They also want to land clear strikes and control the octagon. In order to win the fight by decision all score oriented fighters have to have strong defensive techniques and avoid takedowns.
Clinch-Fighting is a tactic consisting of using a clinch hold to prevent the opponent from moving away into more distant striking range, while also attempting takedowns and striking the opponent using knees , stomps , elbows , and punches.
The clinch is often utilized by wrestlers and Judokas that have added components of the striking game typically boxing , and Muay Thai fighters.
Wrestlers and Judoka may use clinch fighting as a way to neutralize the superior striking skills of a stand-up fighter or to prevent takedowns by a superior ground fighter.
Ronda Rousey , with her Judo background, is considered a master at initiating throws from the clinch to set up armbars. The clinch or "plum" of a Muay Thai fighter is often used to improve the accuracy of knees and elbows by physically controlling the position of the opponent.
Anderson Silva is well known for his devastating Muay Thai clinch. In their rematch Silva repeated this and won again.
Randy Couture used his Greco Roman wrestling background to popularize this style en route to six title reigns in the Ultimate Fighting Championship.
In general, fighters who cannot win fights through lightning offense, or are more suited to win fights in the later rounds or via decision are commonly known as grinders.
Prominent examples of grinders are Pat Healy ,  and Chael Sonnen. While mixed martial arts is primarily a male dominated sport, it does have female athletes.
In Japan, female competition has been documented since the mids. Influenced by female professional wrestling and kickboxing , the Smackgirl competition was formed in and became the only major all-female promotion in mixed martial arts.
Aside from all-female organizations, most major Japanese male dominated promotions have held select female competitions. In the United States, prior to the success of The Ultimate Fighter reality show that launched mixed martial arts into the mainstream media, [ citation needed ] there was no major coverage of female competitions.
Outside Japan and the United States , female competition is almost exclusively found in minor local promotions. The case became a centerpiece of debates concerning whether it was fair to have a transgender woman compete against cisgender women in a contact sport.
Amateur Mixed Martial Arts is the amateur version of the Mixed Martial Arts in which participants engage largely or entirely without remuneration.
Mixed Martial Arts competitions have changed dramatically since the first Ultimate Fighting Championship in , specifically with the inception of the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts.
A recent systematic review concluded that the injury incidence rate in MMA appears to be greater than in most, if not all, other popular and commonly practiced combat sports.
Aldo fought 14 5-round fights in a row between and last year, and was offered the main event at UFC Fortaleza; his coach explains why that was declined: They both have called each other out.
We wanted to prove that we could go up in the higher weight division, and we did that. Then Dana got mad that we dropped that title.
We want to go the lower weight now and be a three-time world champion, three weight divisions. Khabib contradicts Conor account of last punch of the night.
UFC poster released. Jones on trilogy fight vs. Dana get out your checkbook. UFC Fight Night weigh-ins: Two fighters miss, one by 7 lbs.
Dana White not impressed with NAC talk about reining in trash talk. I would have done same thing Khabib did. Her pictures varied from looking hideous to hot.
Dillashaw was for Cejudo fight at What adjustments might produce a more convincing outcome this time?
Where does the smart money belong? Demian Maia is one of the top jiu-jitsu practitioners in UFC history. Ahead of his fight on Saturday in Brazil, he spoke with ESPN about his long career and what life could look like after fighting.
Take a look back at the sequence of events that led to Conor McGregor and Khabib Nurmagomdeov being suspended and fined.
Brett Okamoto breaks down the suspensions and fines given to Khabib Nurmagomedov and Conor McGregor as well as when he expects them to fight again.
Jon Jones offers his thanks and gratitude after being issued a license to fight at UFC on March 2. Same as Abubakar Nurmagomedov.
Suspensions are retroactive to Oct. Ryan Bader, who on Saturday added the heavyweight belt to the light heavyweight strap he already owned, wants to remain with Bellator but is looking to negotiate a new contract.
He claimed the vacant heavyweight championship to go along with his light heavyweight title. Henry Corrales knocks out Aaron Pico with a right hand to the chin in the first round!
Pico dropped him with an uppercut and may have been too greedy. Trading punches in the clinch, Pico goes out cold!
Takedown, elbows, arm triangle Bellator bantamweight Juan Archuleta picks up a decision win over Ricky Bandejas in his drop to pounds. He dropped to bantamweight for a more direct path to the champion, Darrion Caldwell.
These are the moves you need to know, selected by our team of fighting experts. This open-air fight club in Virginia has become a destination for those looking to settle feuds, seek thrills and blow off steam.
Brooklyn saw a champion retain his belt and top prospects continuing their rise. Looking to become the fourth-ever dual title holder, TJ Dillashaw attempts to cut an additional 10 pounds and drop to pounds to face Henry Cejudo.
Y, according to her manager Brian Butler. She will undergo further tests when she returns home to Hawaii later this week. He said the referee asked him to "show him something" and he continued to work.
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